Some recent and not so recent research has prompted my writing this article. Over the past two decades horseshoe manufactures have been inadvertently or perhaps purposely setting trends that could be proving to be detrimental to even those horses that go barefoot. You read it right; trend set by horseshoe manufacturers could have an effect on your barefoot horse. Not through their production of horsemilwaukee brewers hawaiian shirt, but rather by the style of milwaukee brewers hawaiian shirt that they produce.
Thinking back to when I began as a farrier almost 25 years ago, I can remember making my weekly pilgrimage to the local farriers supply store to purchase the required horseshoe inventory to stock my shoeing truck for the week. I would calculate the number of pairs and the sizes I would need for the coming weeks’ work. As my business increased, it became more difficult finding the time to make those weekly trips, and I soon found myself buying inventory for the month.
Establishing a horseshoe inventory was pretty straightforward. I, like most farriers at that time, would buy fullered, punched keg milwaukee brewers hawaiian shirt by the case, in the most common sizes 00, 0, 1, 2, 3. The term keg shoe defines the most common of machine made horsemilwaukee brewers hawaiian shirt. The keg shoe comes in a generic oval shape and was called the “keg shoe” because they were originally shipped in kegs (barrels). This type of shoe almost always needed to be shaped to fit the hind or front foot of the horse. All too often the hurried farrier simply would spread, or close the shoe to fit a foot, and then shape the foot to the shoe., rather than the shoe to the foot.
This practice was likely the first in the beginning of what would become trend, started by the type of shoe that was available from a shoe manufacture. It was the shape of the early manufactured keg milwaukee brewers hawaiian shirt where it all began, trend setting.
As new manufacturing techniques developed, manufactures began producing milwaukee brewers hawaiian shirt in a variety of new shapes. The first new style milwaukee brewers hawaiian shirt to be offered were front and hind pattern milwaukee brewers hawaiian shirt which came out of Europe. American farriers who at the time were taking flack for setting the trend of long toe and low heels, this said to help increase stride, were quick to embrace this convenient way of addressing breakover. This ws the beginning of a new trend, ont that may prove to be just as damaging to today’s horse as long toes and under run heels.
It was the hind pattern shoe that really changed things. The hind pattern shoe was the first readily available shoe to be offered with a square toe. Quickly manufacturers introduced hind milwaukee brewers hawaiian shirt with ready-made side clips, and front milwaukee brewers hawaiian shirt with toe clips. The front shoe pattern was often rounder than the standard keg shoe that many of the farriers were using at the time. This may have been why some farriers began using hind patterns on the fronts of the horse; this proving to be a simple way of providing a square toe to the front foot, making fitting easier.
Twenty years ago, the square toed horseshoe, was more often viewed as a remedial or corrective type horseshoe. It was not often used as a keg shoe. Prior to being able to purchase the square-toed shoe, the square toe needed to be forged.
Over about a ten year period pattern milwaukee brewers hawaiian shirt flooded the market.
American based companies began producing front pattern milwaukee brewers hawaiian shirt that were not as round as the European type pattern milwaukee brewers hawaiian shirt. These new patterns more closely resembled the traditional keg shoe. With increase in production came price reductions, making it more economical to purchase clipped milwaukee brewers hawaiian shirt, rather than forging them. In the mid nineties Eventer-type milwaukee brewers hawaiian shirt were introduced. These pattern milwaukee brewers hawaiian shirt had a rolled cross section, claiming to aid in breakover, they also came in front and hind patterns.
About the mid nineties, we say increase in the use of the Natural Balance Shoe (NBS), which was fashioned after the footprint of the feral horse. It too had square toe and came in front and hind patterns. Each time a new shoe was introduced, it was accompanied by claims that the shoe aided breakover, and / or provided needed heel support. This is still true today, of most newly developed horsemilwaukee brewers hawaiian shirt.
So where is all this going?
To the point, shoe manufacturers have been setting trends that influence the way the farrier addresses the foot.
Recently, I have compiled research on a little understood malady that affects many of today’s horses, the black hole seedy toe.
Our research began in 2001, the opening of the International Institute of Equine Podiatry. Inc., since which time we have examined over 1200 hoof cadaver specimens. We observed a dramatic increase in the occurrence of black hole-type seedy toe. Investigation has now provided evidence that suggest that various trimming and shoeing trends could be that cause for this increase in the incidence of this malady.
Our research has shown that more often that not, the black hole is evidence of a Hyper Keratinized Horn mass, located at the creana marginalis of the coffin bone (seen as a notch in the coffin bone). One theory suggests that an abnormal increase in the size of the creana marginalis was likely due to a compromised blood supply. Further studies implicate that the cause of manifestation of the HKH mass at the site of the creana marginalis is stress.
Biopsies were taken from twenty (20) specimen masses and prepared for examination. Opinions gathered from several pathologists were unanimous; the HKH mass was the result of hyperplasia of epithelial cells with keratinization, this likely caused by stress.
Microphotographs of tissue samples from the masses often showed elongated secondary epidermal laminae (SEL); this occurrence has been associated with changes in response to stress.
Measurements were taken of the solar foot print of the twenty specimens from which the masses were harvested. This showed us that the greater the variance in balance, the larger the mass often appeared. The most widespread causes of imbalance were the under run heel, and the creation of excessively short breakover.
The research has allowed us to develop a number of hypotheses.
1. The theory that abnormal increases in the size of the creana marginalis of the coffin bone is the result of a compromised blood supply due to long toes is no longer tenable.
2. Research supports the theory that abnormal increases in the size of the creana marginalis may be nature’s way of increasing surface area in response to increased stress.
3. Evidence supports the theory that stress and the resulting HKH mass is the cause of the enlargement of the creana marginalis of the coffin bone.
Our conclusion are that trends perpetuated by various shoe types and various trimming techniques proposed over the past decade, are responsible for an increase in the development of the HKH mass, and the resulting black hole seedy toe. The majority of the proposed techniques promote dramatic reduction in breakover, which can lead to improper positioning of the coffin bone within the hoof capsule. There are a number of factors that have surfaced, many of which are the result of improper trimming.
What this all means to those of you that have chosen to go shoeless with your horse, is that you should look more closely at the way your horse is being trimmed.
Here are some recommendations that may help in preventing mass growth, and may aid in stabilization of an existing condition.
- Aggressive rolling of the wall at the toe should be avoided. Avoid dubbing the wall or rockering of the toe into or palmar of the whiteline.
- Avoid ground parallel coffin bones.
- Do not lower the heels to the viable (live) sole at the angle of the bar/wall (often results in ground parallel coffin bone).
- Under run heels do not justify radical break over placement.
- Treating of black hole seedy toe with topical solutions or soaks will do little to remedy the problem.
- Balance should be addressed and any cause of stress relieved; this does not mean excessive removal of material at the toe.
This new evidence bring into question the Universal Sole Trim theory, Natural Balance trim, and any other method that may disrupt balance, causing stress at the site of the creana marginalis (tip of coffin bone).
There are far more studies to be done. Immunology studies are underway, and further research into the cause of the HKH mass is ongoing.
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write by Artemis